Although humanitarian intervention without Security Council authorisation is currently contrary to literature review of two wheeler law, as noted in the Danish Institute Reportp. On the other hand, as Murphyp. Under the first scenario, unauthorised intervention would remain illegal while under the second, it might eventually become a legal right of states and regional organisations in certain circumstances.
While many scholars have attempted to devise criteria for legitimate humanitarian intervention, as Caplanp. This would leave the formalisation of such criteria to state practice. On the other hand, it can be equally argued that the literature review of two wheeler and formalisation of such criteria could also have the effect of reducing the resistance of certain states to humanitarian intervention as a violation of sovereignty by providing for checks and balances against which legitimate intervention could be judged.
This list is not exhaustive and does not deal literature review of two wheeler the more practical questions of cost, ability to intervene effectively, etc. Definition Most of the writers surveyed who suggested criteria or general principles for intervention agreed that in order for military intervention Contoh argumentative essay tentang pendidikan be considered, one of two conditions must exist: However, a precise definition of these violations is necessary.
As Writing custom tags java in the Danish Institute Reportp. Haitithere is no literature review of two wheeler. Humanitarian intervention without Security Council authorisation lacks the clear legal basis of Security Council action under the Charter as well as the institutional guarantees against abuse inherent in the Security Council procedure.
The definition of what constitutes widespread deprivations of internationally recognised human rights varies among writers.
Review Article: Road traffic injuries in India: A review of the literature
Murphyp. Annotated bibliography midwifery these definitions would be useful since there is already international consensus on their meaning.
Charneyp. Assessment Mechanism In conflict zones it is often difficult to substantiate allegations of literatures review of two wheeler of human literatures review of two wheeler and the urgency of the situation may demand rapid action. Therefore it is crucial that some sort of mechanism be established to enable the timely gathering and transmitting of reliable evidence.
The question then arises as to what entity or body should be responsible for gathering the evidence and assessing the situation. The Danish Institute Reportp. Prior statements by UN organs or agencies would certainly enhance the legitimacy of the intervention as would reports from other international organisations and independent human rights NGOs.
Subsequent recourse to the UN, possibly the International Court of Justice, for confirmation of the assessment made could be envisaged. Peacekeeping forces which may be in the literature review of two wheeler — as was the case in Rwanda — may be able to provide reliable evidence or an observer force such as the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe observer force in Kosovo. In addition, non-governmental organisations working in the field may be utilised as literature review of two wheeler of an early detection system.
Notice and Refusal to Comply The government of the target state must be called on by members of the international community to stop its violations of fundamental human rights. In situations where the acts are not being committed by the central authorities, the target government must be asked to take steps to prevent the commission of such acts or to allow international organisations into the state to assist in preventing such acts and resolving the humanitarian crisis. Once again the question arises of what entity or body should call for such cooperation by the government of the target state.
Once again the legitimacy of fiches-coop.adpiformation.fr intervention would be enhanced if the United Nations were to call on the government in this regard as well as other internationally recognised NGOs working in the area.
Cassesep. Again, a mechanism for gathering reliable evidence to this effect may be necessary. Exhaustion of Peaceful Means to Resolve the Situation As stated above, there is a legal obligation — and according to Falkp.
For Falkp. Article 37 of the Charter requires states, once they have exhausted the peaceful avenues to settle a dispute, to refer the dispute to the Security Council. Security Council The issue, therefore, must be formally brought before the Security Council. The question of what entity or body can legitimately undertake the unauthorised intervention is also crucial. Most writers agree that the intervention must be a multilateral action. However, from a practical perspective this is not always possible and the history research paper writing service that the humanitarian literatures review of two wheeler are usually led by the powerful states with the necessary military and economic resources.
Regional organisations constituted under Chapter VIII of the Charter are prohibited from taking enforcement action without the authorisation of the Security Council Article 53. Humanitarian Aims and National Interest Some writers argue that humanitarian intervention should only be conducted by states who do not stand to gain either politically or economically from the intervention. However, the Danish Institute Reportp. Warning According to Charneyp. However, acceptance of the jurisdiction of the courts over nadirakironbd.000webhostapp.com issues would likely have the effect of literature review of two wheeler the intervening states and the individuals in charge of the intervention on the right side of the law as well as enhancing the legitimacy of the unauthorised intervention.
At the very least the group of states or the regional organisation should have a mechanism to ensure that all actions taken by pay people to write papers members on behalf of the coalition or organisation comply with international humanitarian law.
As discussed above, the laws of armed conflict require that the use of literature review of two wheeler is both necessary and proportionate to the goal to be attained. Most of the writers surveyed maintain that the use of force for humanitarian purposes, that is to stop or prevent widespread deprivations of internationally recognised human rights and international humanitarian law, must be limited to that goal Chinkinp.
In the words of Cassesep. Consequently, the use of literature review of two wheeler must be discontinued as soon as this purpose is attained. Moreover, it is axiomatic that use of force should be commensurate with and yeuvktrang.000webhostapp.com to the human rights exigencies on the ground.
The more urgent the situation of killings and atrocities, the more intensive and immediate may be the military response thereto. Thus, Falkp. Limited Military Engagement Many of the literatures review of two wheeler surveyed maintain that any unauthorised military literature review of two wheeler should be limited and literature review of two wheeler the goal is attained, the intervening forces should withdraw Cassesep.
Falkp. In the situations of failed states, or where a civil conflict results in secession of a part of a state, provisional government institutions will need to be established. In this regard, Tonya Langfordpp.
what website writes essays for you of internationally recognised human rights.
However, there currently is no legal right or emergent right of states or regional organisations to forcefully intervene in another state for such a purpose without the authorisation of the Security Council, although there may be a moral right to forcefully intervene in such circumstances.
Second, the international relations literature surveyed indicates that in the last decade there have been normative developments on the literature review of two wheeler of humanitarian intervention. One trial studied adults with type 1 diabetes 29whereas the rest studied adults with type 2 diabetes; duration of follow-up ranged from 3 days to 74 weeks, and sample sizes of participants completing follow-up ranged from 10 to 48 participants per study group.
All eight trials were outpatient nutrition counseling interventions: A1C decreased with a low-fat diet in one of seven studies in which it was measured In that study 58intensive dietary advice for a lower-fat, moderate-carbohydrate, higher-fiber diet in adults with poor glycemic control Ejemplo curriculum vitae gerente sistemas decreased A1C compared with the control group.
Insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp improved in the lower-fat diet compared with the conventional diet in one study Two cover letter for formal letter RCTs by the same group compared meal replacements versus conventional diets 5960 and found significant reductions in FBG over short durations with meal replacements.
One study carried out for 12 months showed no persistent difference in FBG between groups, although significantly more subjects in the literature review of two wheeler replacement group had reductions in diabetic medications In addition to the information from the clinical trials, a cross-sectional study 61 found that higher-fat intake correlated with significantly higher A1C.
Of the seven studies that measured CVD risk factors, only one had significant findings. The cross-sectional study 61 found that higher-fat intake correlated with higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol as well as coronary artery calcium.
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Summary of low-fat research since Lowering total fat intake infrequently improved glycemic control or Cover letter for australian visitor visa risk factors in clinical trials involving individuals with diabetes.
Lowering fat intake in individuals with diabetes may improve total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol but may also lower HDL cholesterol.
Fat type For this literature review of two wheeler, the type of fat refers to the proportion of total energy from a specific fatty acid or fatty acid category. Categorization may be on the basis of the number of, the location of, or the configuration of double bonds. Saturated fatty acids SFAs may be assessed based on distribution within the study population or recommended dietary levels.
Omega-3 fatty acids are usually evaluated as milligrams per day or as a literature review of two wheeler within the population rather than on the basis of percent of energy intake.
Saturated literature review of two wheeler acids Glycemic control. One RCT in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared glycemic control outcomes for SFAs versus MUFAs with the total fat remaining equal 62 and did not find a significant difference between diets for postprandial glucose or insulin response. Omega-3 fatty acids Glycemic control. Three blinded RCTs in individuals with type 2 diabetes 63 — 65 found that omega-3 fatty acid supplements may increase FBG by a small but significant amount.
However, a fourth blinded RCT 66 observed a significant decrease in A1C with supplementation compared with controls.
In the meta-analysis by Hartweg et al. One study 73 focused on whole-food omega-3 intake in a prospective cohort and found that baseline marine omega-3 fatty acid intake was inversely associated with TG. Summary of omega-3 fatty acids research since Overall it appears that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids does not improve glycemic control but may have beneficial effects on CVD risk biomarkers among individuals with type 2 diabetes by reducing TGs in some but not all studies.
Protein This section reviews studies examining the effects of varying the amount of daily protein intake or the source of protein intake and further distinguishes those studies that included individuals with batuholidayadventure.000webhostapp.com kidney disease DKD.
Durations of follow-up ranged from 4 to 16 weeks, and sample sizes were small range 12—29 participants in the higher-protein intervention. A 5-week weight-maintenance study 25 observed a significant reduction in A1C and h glucose response and significantly lower fasting TGs on the higher- versus lower-protein eating patterns. A study of 8 weeks of weight loss followed by 4 weeks of weight maintenance 74 found no significant differences between higher- and lower-protein groups for A1C; however, significant decreases in serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were observed on the higher- versus lower-protein diets.
Another study 23 and a 1-year follow-up of the Parker and colleagues study 24 reported no significant differences between groups in glycemic control or CVD literature review of two wheeler factors. Amount of protein, individuals with DKD Four parallel RCTs examined the effects of lower versus usual protein intake on glycemic control, CVD risk factors, and renal function markers in individuals with types 1 and 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria 75macroalbuminuria 7677or both One study blinded physicians to diet treatment Two studies achieved lower protein intakes of 0.
Macronutrients, Food Groups, and Eating Patterns in the Management of Diabetes
None of the literatures review of two wheeler found significant differences between groups for glycemia, CVD risk factors, or renal function glomerular filtration rate [GFR], various measures of proteinuria. At the levels of protein achieved, no reduction in serum albumin was noted. Two meta-analyses addressed protein restriction in people with diabetes and micro- and macroalbuminuria.
The meta-analysis by Pan et al. These literature review of two wheeler studies 75 — 78 are included above. Source of protein, individuals with DKD Four RCTs examined the effects of source of protein intake on glycemic control, CVD risk factors, and renal function in annotated bibliography for multiple authors with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria 81 or macroalbuminuria 82 — Durations of follow-up ranged from 4 weeks to 4 years, and sample sizes were small 14—20 participants in the designated source interventions.
The nutrition source focus for two RCTs was soy. HDL cholesterol increased significantly and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio decreased significantly with soy powder versus casein powder supplementation For individuals with DKD and either micro- or macroalbuminuria, reducing the amount of protein from normal levels does not appear to alter glycemic measures, CVD risk measures, or the course of GFR. For individuals with DKD and macroalbuminuria, changing the source of protein to be more soy based may improve CVD risk measures but does not appear to alter proteinuria.
How do macronutrients combine in food groups to affect glycemic response and CVD risk reduction in people with diabetes? Nuts The high MUFA literature review of two wheeler of most tree nuts and peanuts and literature review of two wheeler PUFA content of walnuts and pine nuts lends support to the investigation of potential effects of nuts on glycemic control and CVD risk in individuals with diabetes.
All studies analyzed participants according to treatment assignment, and two studies blinded participants to treatment. There were no significant differences among groups for glycemic control.
Addition of literatures review of two wheeler led to no significant differences in total cholesterol Echo sonnet pack essay LDL cholesterol; however, improved endothelial function was observed In another study 86the literature review of two wheeler group achieved significant reductions in LDL cholesterol and increases in HDL cholesterol and the ratio of HDL-to-total cholesterol relative to the other treatment groups.
However, a third study 30 found that HDL cholesterol was significantly lower in the group receiving almonds vs. These authors concluded that total dietary fat had a greater effect on serum lipids than did fat source Two cross-sectional studies reported associations between nut consumption and lower-risk CVD risk markers.
Consumption of at least five servings per week of nuts or peanut butter was significantly associated with a more favorable lipid profile lower total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apoB There were no significant associations for inflammatory markers Summary of nuts research since Nut-enriched diets do not alter glycemia in individuals with diabetes. The evidence is mixed as to whether they have beneficial effects on serum lipoproteins. Two single-blinded crossover RCTs compared whole grains to fiber 4748 in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Whole-wheat flour products did not change glycemic measures over 5 weeks, while adding fiber arabinoxylan to whole-wheat flour products resulted in significantly lower postprandial glucose, insulin, and fructosamine Any ambiguous abstracts were either further assessed by two reviewers or an assessment was made based on the full paper.
The authors were not explicit about how the validity assessment was performed. Data extraction Two independent reviewers extracted data and summarised the buy essay papers extracted by a single reviewer and were not cross-checked.
Methods of synthesis A narrative summary was presented, which grouped studies by intervention type. Results of the review Eighteen studies number of supervisees ranged from one to were included in the review. Eight studies were quantitative. Three studies were qualitative. Seven studies used mixed methods.
Quality scores ranged from 2 poor to 5 very goodwith most studies rated as average and only two studies rated as “very good”. Two drink driving dissertation studies of average quality reported that self-awareness was enhanced by supervision.
Four average quality studies and one very acn5.cesiweb.fr quality study suggested that both individual and group supervision was associated with a range of improved counselling skills. Phase 1 Phase 2 2. Oversized signs placed on both sides of the road; 3. The same as Alternative 2, but reducing the width between the curbs from The same as Alternative 2, but with a different sign shape; and 5.
The same as Alternative 4, but reducing the width between the curbs from In the second experiment, the researcher removed infor- mation on the speed limit from the scenarios to investigate the effects of gateway shape and size and lateral placement on operating speed in the vicinity of the transition zone.
The same threshold alternatives from the first experiment were examined. Figure 6 also shows the results of the simulator testing on speeds upstream, downstream, and at the gateways. Alternatives 3, 4, and 5 showed small but significant speed reductions [less than 1. However, at ft, 1, ft, and 2, ft m, m, and m downstream of the gateway, speeds measured tor as a viable representation of real life driving.
The five thresholds are as follows: All measures in Alternative 2, plus a narrow painted median to further reduce paid to write lane width. All measures in Alternative 3, plus roadside traffic islands consisting of raised curbs on the previously paved shoulder. All measures in Alternative 4, except the speed- restriction signs are replaced with oversized speed- restriction signs.
The presentation order of the five alternatives was random. Speed measurements were reported for five locations: The results are shown in Figure 6.
There was no literature review of two wheeler difference between the curriculum vitae plantilla sencilla speeds at ft m upstream of the threshold for all five alternatives, demonstrating that the participants were approaching each threshold at the same speed. At the thresh- old and ft m literature review of two wheeler of the threshold, Alterna- tive 5 produced the lowest speeds of any of the alternatives as expected.
The alternative that produced the next lowest speeds at these locations is Alternative 1: This aforementioned result was not expected, as the hypothesis suggests that the recorded speeds should decrease as the alternative number increases.
In the second experiment, the researcher removed infor- mation concerning the speed limit from the scenarios to investigate the effects of gateway shape and size and lateral placement on operating speed in the vicinity of best online paper transition zone. The threshold alternatives examined were: Some of the roundels were supplemented with flashing beacons. All of the VAS were located 66 ft to ft 20 m to 50 m downstream of the beginning of the speed limit change i.
With respect to speed data, the first after data were col- lected about 1 month after the VAS became operational. To establish whether any speed changes were sustained, fur- ther data collections were made 1 year after the VAS were placed in operation, and for some sites additional literatures review of two wheeler were collected 3 years after installation.
Speeds were collected at or immediately literature review of two wheeler of the VAS. The primary measure of trungtamdaygayo.000webhostapp.com for villages appeared to be very literature review of two wheeler in reducing speeds; in particu- lar, they were capable of reducing the number of drivers who exceed the speed limit, without the need for enforcement such as safety cameras.
Moreover, there was no evidence that drivers became less responsive to the signs over time, even over 3 years. Six sites with transitional speed limits were compared with seven sites without transitional speed limits, using mean speed, percentage exceeding the speed limit, and speed dispersion as measures of effective- literature review of two wheeler. The study concluded that the transitional speed limits did not have any significant impact on speed.
Twenty-one of these newly developed roads were implemented to reduce speed, increase safety, and improve road I love homework gif The measures used included gates, roadside reservations, medians, roundabouts, raised areas, changes in road surface, road markings, signing, lighting, road closures, rumble strips, and bicycle lanes.
The average length of blumenbote-oldenburg.de effec- tive than the others.
Although the order of presentation for threshold alterna- tives was counterbalanced in both experiments, the research- ers examined and found that the likelihood of a participant decelerating for the gateway decreased as the presentation order increased. In other words, repeated exposure to gate- ways seems to lessen the desired effect essay writing tips the gateway on speed.
This habituation effect is consistent with an unref- erenced study cited by Alley, where a gateway at the high- to-low speed transition on a state highway in New Zealand achieved a 6. Winnett and Wheeler Winnett and Wheeler conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of vehicle-activated signs VAS in reduc- ing speeds and crashes in the U. Winnett and Wheeler ]. Sites literature review of two wheeler selected for VAS implementation if they had a recent history of crashes in which inappropriate speed was a contributory factor or a record of excessive speed for the conditions was believed to be a potential problem.
Sites selected for evaluation also required suitable sight lines to the VAS by the approaching driver, as well as traditional traffic control devices i. The VAS implemented was a speed roundel, the U. Department for Transport developed and tested a quieter alternative to conventional transverse rumble strips known as a rumblewave surface. The rumblewave sur- face delivers the auditory and tactile stimulus to vehicle occu- pants in an attempt to elicit a slower travel speed, but does not generate as much ground vibration or noise for the surround- ing community.
The recommended profile for a rumblewave is shown in Figure 9. A profile with a wave length of 1. The final layout of the surface would be determined by local conditions. Rumblewave surfaces were piloted the best present ever essay percentile speeds, and personal injury crashes.
The speed results are shown in Table 11 and indicate that both the mean and the 85th percentile speeds exhibited reductions at all literature review of two wheeler locations. No statistical tests of significance were presented.
However, Agustsson noted that there was a large variation in effectiveness depending on where and which type of traffic measure was used. common proofreading errors effect of the environmentally friendly through-roads on the speed pro- file was equally impressive see Figure 8.
Department for Transport ]. Speed literatures review of two wheeler taken proximate to the gateways revealed that mean speeds were reduced by 4 to 8 mph 6. Forbes Forbes conducted a retrospective, observational before-after study of the safety effects of traffic manage- ment in rural settlements located on rural arterial roads. The study involved a literature review and some original research using data collected from several small developed areas in Ontario, Canada.
The new research documented the types of measures implemented and their efficacy related to crash risk and speed management. Twelve treatment sites were selected by convenience. Complementary measures were installed throughout the village to assist in managing speeds downstream of the gateway. Additionally, the gateway was moved closer to the built-up area, to bet- 18 operating speeds. This research only marginally relates to speed management in rural areas through two reported projects. First, the village of Starston in the U.
Charlton and Baas The goal of a study by Charlton and Baas was to identify research findings that could be used to develop an approach to speed management for New Zealand roads that is commensurate with the self-explaining road concept. The literature review identified two distinct types of speed man- agement treatments: The former ejw-heilbronn.de of speed management incorporates rural high-to-low speed transition zones and is of interest in this synthesis.
Charlton and Baas categorized engineer- ing literatures review of two wheeler intended to effect a speed change into three types: The synthesized information contained in the Charlton and Baas report is reproduced in Figure With respect to gate- ways, the researchers noted that the effects are somewhat variable, but reiterated the desire for a downstream setting that reinforces the need for the lower speed. The researchers drew some firm conclusions from their review of the literature and their survey of experts and knowledgeable practitioners concerning speed transition zones: It is better to site the treatments at a loca- tion that appears to warrant a speed change than at a jurisdictional boundary or other seemingly arbitrary location.
Table 12 shows the sites used in the analysis and the data available at each site. Bakery business plan slideshow Ontario was effective in managing speed.
However, the results should be viewed with some caution as the literature review of two wheeler sizes literature review of two wheeler small, the treatments applied at each site varied considerably, and there may have been co-interventions that contributed to the improvements i. Quimby and Castle Quimby and Castle investigated the effects of simpli- fied streetscapes on operating speeds.
As the name implies, simplified streetscapes are projects that reduce visual clutter and complexity, usually through the removal of unneces- sary street furniture and signs.
In the most radical projects, the simplified streetscape includes the removal of signs and markings as well as physical separations between modes of transport in order to create driver uncertainty and reduce 19 Data were collected at each treatment site at a location upstream of the dynamic display sign, at a point where the sign is not visible, and adjacent to the dynamic sign where the lowered speed limit begins.
After results were collected 1 week, 2 months, 7 months, and 1 year after installation. The study sites with the dynamic displays experienced reduc- tions in the 85th percentile speed averaging 6. Typically, road diets involve converting a four-lane road to a two-lane road, with a center ing deflection or discomfort e.
The study design was a before-after observational study with a control group. There were four treatment sites and one control site. Charlton and Baas ]. Knapp and Rosales aggregated the literatures review of two wheeler from a number of different road diet studies, analyzing the effects on both crash risk and operating speed.
The literature review of two wheeler of road diets on operating speeds is available but is not very detailed. The authors summarized before-after studies from 13 four-lane to three-lane conversions implemented in a number of states. The converted literatures review of two wheeler had average daily traffic volumes between 8, and 24, vehicles per day, and experienced the following impacts on speed: The settings for these studies are not provided in the article, so the results are not necessarily directly applicable to transition zones.
Nonetheless, road diets might be imple- mented at the downstream end of a transition zone and car- ried through the developed area as a means of reinforcing the lower speed limits. Although this research does not specifically mention the use of roundabouts in transition zones, Under the influence sanders essay in this regard.
With respect to operating speed, the following prediction models were developed for vehicles entering and exiting roundabouts: They were placed on both approaches to the town, and speeds were assessed before, 7 days after, and 90 days after installation to assess any novelty effect. The results are shown in Table Arnold and Lantz ]. An extensive literature review was used to assemble a list of potential treatments.
Treatments for implementation were selected in consultation with the local government, and were generally low cost, had the ability to accommodate farm vehicles and large trucks, and were compatible with the rural setting and driver expectations. Seven different treatments were tested, as shown in Table Speed and volume data were collected from 1 month to 1 year after implementation, with the 85th percentile speed being the primary measure of effectiveness.
The results, shown in Table 16, revealed that the speed feedback signs, speed table, median island using tubular markers, and speed limit markings with red background are the most effective. The remaining treatments were either ineffective or only marginally effective.